Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2023-01-13T15:35:56+00:00 Dr. Maryam Zain Open Journal Systems <p>Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (PJBB) considers broad-spectrum papers for publication in the fields having close relevance to experimental work in Biological and Biotechnology disciplines. PJBB intended for exploring the molecular mechanisms that underpin key biological processes, and reviews on the latest advances and new mechanistic concepts in the fields of biochemistry, cellular biosciences, molecular biology, medical biochemistry, plant biochemistry, Agriculture Biotechnology, Agricultural Chemistry, Genetic Engineering, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Environmental Sciences (papers related to life sciences only), Medicine and Health Sciences, Agricultural Engineering.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong></p> <p>Vice Chancellor, The Women University, Multan.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF</strong></p> <p><strong>Dr. Maryam Zain </strong>(Chairperson)<br />Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology<br />The Women University, Multan.</p> Antimicrobial Evaluation of Edible and Inedible parts of com-mon Vegetables and their use in increasing shelf life of Milk, Meat and Tomatoes 2022-10-13T08:36:44+00:00 Mirza Imran Shahzad Summayya Anwar Hina Ashraf Sabeen Attique Shumaila Khan Mussarat Ramzan Azra Khanum <p>Background: Bacterial diseases are commonly found all over the world and medicinal plants are vastly used for the cure these diseases. These plants are rich source of valuable antibacterial and food preservative agents. In Pakistan, tons of vegetables are discarded as inedible part during peeling and cutting before cooking as well as due to unavailability of proper preservative techniques. The present study was designed to check antibacterial and food preservative potential of commonly vegetables of Pakistan. Methods: The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of edible and inedible parts of <em>Momordica charantia</em>, <em>Pisum sativum</em> and <em>Abellmoschus esculentus</em> were made and tested against <em>Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimorium, Pasterurella multocida, Lactobacillus bulgaricus </em>and <em>Micrococcus luteus</em> by disc diffusion method<em>.</em> Zones of inhibition were measured. Results: Highest antibacterial activity was observed in ethanolic extracts of inedible parts of <em>Pisum sativum</em>. Moderate activity was observed from edible parts of <em>Momordica charantia</em>. The study has highlighted the use of vegetables as edible vaccines.</p> 2023-01-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Gender linked negative consequences of “Nigella sativa” seeds and “Plantago ovata” husk on fibrosis in the energy-rich diet (ERD) induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) 2022-10-12T10:31:25+00:00 Afshan Syed Abbas Mudassir Hassan Abbasi Babar Khawar Faiza Jabeen Asia Shad Nadeem Sheikh <p><strong>Background: </strong>Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a developing liver problem mainly linked with the consumption of an ‘energy-rich-diet (ERD) in Asian countries including both females and males. NAFLD is associated with fibrosis in advanced stages. Medicinal herbs are being used to cut down the excessive fat of the body conventionally. Therefore, the current study was aimed to evaluate the lipid lowering factor against ERD induced fibrosis.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods:</strong> 40 female (F) and 40 male (M) <em>Rattus norvegicus</em>, subdivided as four groups Groups 0, I, II and III according to their nutritional content. Group-0 received 100% rat chow and Group-I received ERD. Group-II and Group-III received ERD supplemented with 5% <em>Nigella sativa</em> seeds/<em>Plantago. ovata </em>husk per kg ERD, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Histopathological evaluation of the liver showed pericellular and portal and fibrosis in both F-I and F-II. Radial fibrosis was detected in the M-II group, and peri lobular as well as bridging fibrosis between portal triads in the M-III and F-III groups.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In the light of the present findings, it is inferred that male livers were more susceptible to DRE-induced fibrosis. <em>N. sativa </em>seeds proved auspicious in minimizing fibrosis, whereas <em>P. ovata </em>pods caused advanced liver fibrosis with DRE.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Studies of Salvadora persica, Prosopis cineraria and Tamarix aphyla Plants from Cholistan, Pakistan 2022-10-13T08:34:39+00:00 Dr Mirza Imran Shahzad Muhammad Safdar Hussain Irfan Saeed Hina Ashraf Summiyya Anwar Mussarat Ramzan <p>Viral and bacterial infections are causing havoc to human health, wildlife, poultry and livestock since long. Current study was designed to carry out investigation of the antiviral and antibacterial potential of leaves of <em>Salvadora persica</em>, <em>Prosopis cineraria</em> and <em>Tamarix aphyla</em> from Cholistan by using HA/IHA titers and Agar disc diffusion methods. Extracts of these plants were tested against 4 different viruses i.e. Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), Infectious Bursal Disease Virus (IBDV), Infectious Bronchitis Virus (IBV) and Avian Influenza Virus (AIV-H9N2) and 5 different bacteria i.e. <em>Proteus vulgaris</em>, <em>Klebsiella pneumonia</em>, <em>Escherichia coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em>. The drug ampicillin was used as a positive control. The results indicate that the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts were more effective against viruses and bacteria as compared to ethanol, methanol, <em>n</em>-butanol and aqueous extracts. In comparison of plants, the extracts of <em>S. persica</em> were found to have highest antiviral potential while on the other hand the extracts of <em>T. aphyla</em> showed the best activity against bacteria. Overall these plants were most effective against IBDV and least effective against NDV and in comparison of bacterial pathogens, these plants were found to be highly effective against <em>P. vulgaris</em> and least effective against <em>P. aeruginosa.</em></p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Genotypic Characterization of Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) for Physiological Attributes Associated with Water Stress Tolerance 2023-01-13T15:35:56+00:00 Khadim Hussain Muhammad Akbar Farzana Ashraf Muhammad Idrees Khan Muhammad Ilyas Sarwar Fida Hussain Javed Iqbal Hafiz Muhammad Imran Mubashir Islam Gill Hafiz Naveed Ramzan <p>Drought has an impact on agricultural growth and development, which significantly reduces output and degrades produce quality. Fifty cotton genotypes were tested in the field for performance under artificially produced water deficit stress conditions. In 2015, sowing was carried out in the first week of May with two sets of every genotype in each replication. While the other set continued to be stressed by a water shortage, one set was regularly irrigated. The crop was allowed to grow for a duration of four weeks. Data on various physiological markers related to different genotypes' resistance to water stress were gathered. The findings showed that under normal and stressful conditions, the genotypes differed significantly (p 0.01) in a number of physiological variables e.g.&nbsp; relative water content, cell damage, leaf water potential, excised leaf water loss, osmotic potential, and stomatal conductance. For the several variables examined, very significant interactions (p0.01) were also found between genotypes and water stress. The genotypes include (Include nut shell results indicating susceptible and tolerant varieties)</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Mammalian model based histological comparison of fresh and expired mecobalamin intake on liver and kidney 2022-08-04T08:56:23+00:00 Mafia Manzoor Anam Javed Sabahat Naheed <p>This study was designed to estimate the possible histological effects of fresh and expired mecobalamin regular exposure to hepatic and renal tissues after 4 weeks. For this purpose, thirty male albino mice of 8 weeks age were kept in animal house for 10 days habituation and then they were divided into three groups: group I (control group), experimental group II (treated with fresh mecobalamin), experimental group III (treated with expired mecobalamin). ANOVA based significant results were observed for mice body weight, arterial diameter and its wall thickness in renal histological sections of both experimental groups. Similarly, significant changes were observed in arterial diameter, venous wall thickness and lobule diameter in hepatic histological sections. It was concluded that regular long term intake of fresh mecobalamin results in over dosage based side effects whereas exposure to expired mecobalamin causes renal and hepatic tissues necrosis, along with irregular variations of vasodilation and vasoconstriction in blood vessels. Thus, a programmed general public campaign is required to develop awareness that mecobalamin should be used according to prescribed dosage rather than self-medication and before use, the expiry date should be checked and expired drugs should be strictly prohibited to avoid physiological disturbances.</p> <p><strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong></p> 2022-10-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Exogenous Application of Salicylic acid Mitigates heat-induced Oxidative Stress in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) 2022-12-27T18:41:19+00:00 Maryam Zahra Sumaira Rasul Fozia Saeed Lubna Rasool Hamid Manzoor <p>Due to climate change, heat stress is becoming one of the most disastrous abiotic stresses and responsible for huge crop losses in different regions of the world. Adverse effects of heat stress can be encountered by the use of phytohormones and salicylic acid (SA) is one of those hormones having capability to protect plants from heat stress. Current research work was planned to explore the defensive role of exogenously applied SA in barley cultivars under high temperature. For this purpose, two weeks old plants of four barley cultivars (Jau-87, B-10007, B-14003 and B-14037) were foliar sprayed with SA (2 mM and 5 mM) for 24 hours and then were exposed to heat stress (42 °C). Our results showed that heat exposure made a prominent decrease in chlorophyll contents, carotenoids, relative water contents, antioxidant enzymes activities (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase) and anthocyanin activity while increased lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde), hydrogen peroxide (H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub>) contents and proline accumulation. Foliar application of SA enhanced plants photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll <em>a</em>, <em>b</em> and total), RWC, proline, and anthocyanin under control and stressed conditions. SA pre-treatment under heat stress reduced H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> and MDA levels whereas activities of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging enzymes were elevated by all tested SA concentrations. These results suggest that SA can efficiently remove H<sub>2</sub>O<sub>2</sub> by increasing activity of above mentioned enzymes hence reducing oxidative stress and malondialdehyde (MDA) contents. Proline, an important amino acid that acts as an anti-oxidative system in plants also highly accumulated in SA co-treated heat-stressed plants. Our results also showed that 2mM SA is more effective in protecting barley plants under heat stress as compared to 5mM SA. This concluded that defensive nature of SA regulates different physiological and biochemical processes to induce heat tolerance in barley.</p> 2022-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Obesity a key risk factor for offsprings with diabetes mellitus, of Type II diabetic parents 2022-10-24T06:51:50+00:00 Hafiza Nida Shehzadi Umbreen Shabbir Hamama Islam Butt Hira Muzzamal Shahzad Nadeem Ayesha Abbas Ayesha Yaqoob Hafiz Muhammad Azeem Shahzad Bashir <p>Around the globe Type II diabetes is a major health issue that proceeds both from inheritance-environment interaction along with varied health risk factors like obesity and sedentary lifestyle. The body mass index (BMI) significantly linked diabetes to insulin resistance in people with high blood glucose levels. The main objective of this study was to determine a link between obesity and parental history (PH), which is a key risk factors for onset of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) in the offsprings of Type II diabetic parents. This study includes a total of 70 offsprings i.e. 50 obese and 20 non-obese offsprings from both genders with a familial history of diabetes (FHD). The important observations like BMI, Waist/Hip ratio, FBG test, 2hr OGTT and Urine examination were determined in control and test group individuals respectively. Thus, it is concluded that obesity and overweight are the key risk factor for onset of diabetes in offsprings as the mean of FBG was 115.5mg/dl as compared to 75.5mg/dl in controls and mean of 2-hr OGTT was 155.5mg/dl as compared to 89.9 mg/dl in controls respectively. However, cautious modifications in diet and exercises regime can aid to diminish or delay the onset of diabetes in offsprings with a prior history of Type II diabetic parents.</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Evaluation of Therapeutic Potential of Natural Resources against Breast Cancer 2022-06-03T17:22:13+00:00 Aqsa Munir Ishrat Fatima Zelle Humma <p>For ages, natural resources plants and herbs have been used in homeopathic medicines to prevent and cure multiple diseases. Although in this era, synthetic medicines are being frequently utilized by patients with breast cancer, their frequent use causes multiple adverse effects on the body. It is much needed to find new anti-cancer agents with less toxicity. Natural medicines have no or less toxicity and show effective potential to cure breast cancer. There are several plants and herbs which possess anticancer features. A variety of herbs and plants contain multiple phytochemicals like flavonoids, essential oils, ligands, carotenoids, terpenoids, flavones, polyphenols etc. Anti cancerous chemotherapeutic drugs are being used to treat cancer. But they cause harmful side effects. Hence, we need to discover new and natural resources which show no or less toxic effects. In this review, we evaluated significant natural resources to treat breast cancer. Garlic, flax seed, moringa, burdock, ginseng, saffron and oregano show the potential to cure breast cancer. These plants and herbal extracts lessen tumor growth, reduce cancer cell propagation, and show the ability to prevent and alleviate breast cancer. These compounds are essential for human health and prevent us from various diseases. Phytochemicals are important and beneficial for curing various diseases, including breast cancer. This review has described the bioactive properties of a variety of plants and herbs. These natural herbs and plants are an effective strategy to treat breast cancer without toxic effects.&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Microbial enzymatic Potential Indulgence in Solid Waste Management 2022-08-13T04:16:46+00:00 Anam Javed Maria Hussain Urwa Tahseen <p>Solid waste is a trash that is released from agriculture proceeding, industrial, commercial, mining and community activities. The management of solid waste is useful for environmental protection. Different enzymes play an essential role to remove toxic materials. Proteases are produced by several microorganisms that are based on a variety of pH ranges. The toxic chemicals that are emitted from the industries can be used maintained by Proteases and for the degradation of keratinous material in households. Cellulase activates the hydrolysis of cellulose and produces glucose and has a vital role in textile, agricultural, and municipal waste management. Different bacteria, fungi, and yeast are major sources of amylase that are suitable to produce biofertilizers from municipal waste. Lipases act as biocatalysts that biodegrade the polyester waste and convert it into useful products.</p> 2022-10-18T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology The psychosomatic impact of COVID-19 with a negative coping style of the general Population during a Historical Pandemic: A web-based survey in Pakistan 2022-08-30T07:33:39+00:00 Sana Shabbir Malik Sana Riaz Fadia Waheed Salman Hussain Muhammad Zaheer Maham Khalid Afifa Muhammad Ahsan M. Ahmad Riaz Mehboob Ahmed <p>Coronavirus outbreak of COVID-19 may affect public mental health. The media is reporting every minute current situation with the highlighted public response towards the outbreak which showed people may experience negative coping styles. Our study designed to measure the level of people's responses such as attitude, knowledge to handle the situation, mental health care need among the population during the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire-based online survey was conducted by using the snowball sampling technique. Hence we examined the general population’s psychological distress and coping style before grasping at straws. We received a total of 353 responses. After the analysis survey, we noticed that people's attitude showed their mental situation towards quarantine and social distancing. A high anxiety level was observed in the study. It is necessary to provide mental healthcare facilities and awareness to cope with the situation of the COVID-19 pandemic. The overall awareness response to the survey depicts that the general population of Pakistan possesses sufficient (73%) awareness and knowledge regarding COVID19, its symptoms, and available prevention strategies. Overall, the social behavior of the general population showed only (24%) of the participants possess a sufficient attitude to cope up with COVID-19 infection. There is a need to intensify the awareness and address the mental health issues of people during this COVID-19 pandemic.</p> 2022-12-23T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Genetic Variation Analysis among different sheep Breeds of Balochistan by Utilizing Cytochrome b Gene of Mitochondrial DNA. 2022-11-11T05:03:03+00:00 Muhammad Bilawal Arain <p>This study was conducted to analyze the utility of mitochondrial cytochrome <em>b</em> gene sequences for phylogenetic estimates of relationships between Sheep breeds of balochistan. 100 animals (4 sheep breeds) were selected from various areas of Balochistan. Blood samples were collected and processed for DNA extraction. Specific primers were designed for the amplification of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene. Direct Sequencing of gene was done to identify the genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship among sheep breeds. The genetic variations identified in three sheep breeds i.e. 243bp T/C whereas TAT/TAC which coded same amino acid Tyrosine on 81<sup>st</sup> codon, 309bp T/C whereas TAT/TAC which coded same amino acid Tyrosine on 103<sup>rd</sup> codon and 366bp G/A whereas GCG/GCA which coded Alanine on 122<sup>nd</sup> codon in Harnai, Rakhshani and Balochi respectively. Phylogenetic tree was constructed on line by using MABL (Methods Algorithems Bio-informatique Lirmm) on line. Genetic distance was found among the breeds was 0.3.</p> 2022-12-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Quantitative Study of Cry1Ac Protein and Bioassay for Helicoverpa armigera at Different Development Stages of Upland Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) 2023-01-13T06:36:47+00:00 Khadim Hussain Wajid Nazeer Muhammad Akbar Farzana Ashraf Muhammad Idrees Khan Hafiz Muhammad Imran Muhammad Ilyas Sarwar Fida Hussain Javed Iqbal <p>Eight transgenic (<em>Cry1Ac</em> -endotoxin) genotypes and one non-GMO cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) variety were used in the investigation. <em>Cry1Ac</em> protein was expressed at various extents in several strains. In a greenhouse environment, sixty days after planting, the cry 1Ac gene's expression peaked. At 60 DAP, the variety Bt.CIM-598 (1.871 g/g) expressed the most toxin of any genotype. Throughout the cropping season, larvae of the <em>Helicoverpa armigera</em> were gathered from every section of the nation that produces cotton. <em>H. armigera</em> larvae that were captured in the field were raised on artificial feeds. There was a negative relationship between the DAP and the amount of <em>Cry1Ac</em> protein (-0.332). The greatest amount of death was seen when first-instar larvae consumed the leaves of 60 DAP plants. It was found that transgenic variants had a considerable effect on the percentage mortality of <em>H. armigera</em>. MNH-886 larvae showed the highest mortality percentage when fed on leaves that were harvested 30 DAP (days after planting). When larvae were fed on 60 and 90 DAP leaves on CIM-598 and IR-1524, the mortality rate was greater. However, AA-802 had the highest death rate when larvae were fed on 120 DAP leaves. The variety with the highest death rate was CIM-598. When <em>H. armigera</em> consumed 60 DAP leaves, the greatest overall mortality was noted. The plant-toxin interaction in cotton varied depending on a number of physiological changes in plants. Regardless of plant age or variety, the highest rate of mortality of<em> H. armigera</em> larvae was seen after feeding 48-hour of treatment or feeding.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2022-12-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology