Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology 2022-05-13T08:06:03+00:00 Dr. Maryam Zain Open Journal Systems <p>Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology (PJBB) considers broad-spectrum papers for publication in the fields having close relevance to experimental work in Biological and Biotechnology disciplines. PJBB intended for exploring the molecular mechanisms that underpin key biological processes, and reviews on the latest advances and new mechanistic concepts in the fields of biochemistry, cellular biosciences, molecular biology, medical biochemistry, plant biochemistry, Agriculture Biotechnology, Agricultural Chemistry, Genetic Engineering, Biotechnology and Bioinformatics, Environmental Sciences (papers related to life sciences only), Medicine and Health Sciences, Agricultural Engineering.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>PATRON IN CHIEF</strong></p> <p><strong>Prof. Dr Uzma Quraishi</strong></p> <p>Vice Chancellor, The Women University, Multan.</p> <p> </p> <p><strong>EDITOR-IN-CHIEF</strong></p> <p><strong>Dr. Maryam Zain </strong>(Chairperson)<br />Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology<br />The Women University, Multan.</p> Antioxidant, Antidiabetic and Structural Analysis of Spinacia Oleracea Leaf 2022-03-25T12:59:45+00:00 Fatima Hussain Haroon ur Rashid Kayani Samia Bashir <p>Medicinal plants have been conventionally used to sustain health and treat many diseases such as diabetes for years.&nbsp; <em>Spinacia oleracea</em> L., common name palak, belong to the class Amaranths and family Amaranthaceous. It is used as an anti-bacterial, antidiabetic, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective agent. In this study, methanol, ethanol, <em>n</em>-hexane and aqueous extracts of the <em>Spinacia oleracea</em> leaf were used to evaluate antioxidant contents, antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity (inhibition of glycation, alpha amylase, alpha glucosidase, acetylchlinesterase). Additionally, identification of bioactive compounds and functional groups was done by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Among all the extracts, total phenol and flavonoid contents were 32.09 ± 0.99 g GAE/100 g to 78.38 ± 1.15 g GAE/100 g and 22.77 ± 0.16 g CE/100 g to 54.56 ± 0.87 g CE/100 g. While DPPH reducing activity range was 45.14% -75.77%. Methanol extract was most potent as it extracted maximum antioxidant contents. Glycation and alpha amylase inhibition percentages were 15.31 to 34.28 and 19.83-36.32 among all tested samples of spinach. Whereas, 12.67-43.77% and 17.3% to 28.04% blocking of alpha glucosidase and acetylcholinesterase activities were observed. HPLC analysis identified various flavonoids and phenolics acids such as quercetin, gallic acid, caffeic acid, sinopic acid, cinnamic acid. FTIR showed that <em>S. oleracea</em> contains several phenols, amines, alkaloids, alcohols and fluoro compounds in the methanolic leaves extract. This research indicated that <em>S. oleracea</em> has wide potential to be further investigated in the future and it can prove as a wonderful natural drug for healthcare systems in the upcoming years.</p> 2022-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology COVID-19: A Review on Various Therapeutic and Nutritional Approaches 2021-12-17T11:10:36+00:00 Huda Rehman Mir Hafsa Abid Manam Walait Samia Afzal <p>The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, has affected the world drastically with almost every country in the world reporting cases of coronavirus.&nbsp; Undoubtedly, challenging situations have caused social and economic disturbances.&nbsp; Communities with poor hygiene practices and immunological disorders are more susceptible to this viral disease which affects the respiratory tract. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, World Health Organization and governments of different countries have devised several strategies and regulations to minimize the spread of the virus.&nbsp; These include physical distancing measures, frequent hand washing and strict lockdowns in many regions of the world.&nbsp; Owing to its novel nature, no single specific treatment can be shortlisted for COVID-19.&nbsp; Alternatively, the therapeutic and nutritional approaches currently being considered have been effective in treating similar viruses in the past like SARS-CoV-1 and MERS.&nbsp; These approaches aim to assist and reinforce the immune response by stimulating innate and adaptive responses.&nbsp; This is a descriptive review - highlights all such potential therapeutic and nutritional approaches that effectively mediate the anti-inflammatory responses in patients reported with COVID-19. Since vaccination programs are in their initial stages, these approaches when used in a combination, can reduce mortality rates and ensure recovery in affected masses.</p> 2020-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Validation of PCR-based Markers Associated with Sex Determination in Date Palm (Phoenix dactylifera L.) 2022-01-03T18:56:00+00:00 Zarmeena Amjad Zulqurnain Khan Muhammad Shan Plosha Khanum Amjad Saeed Gulzar Akhtar <p><em>Phoenix dactylifera </em>(Date palm) is one of the essential commercial and economical fruit crops which mainly grows in hot arid areas. A good source of food, shelter, and energy, date palm is widely known due to its unique characteristics. The dioecious nature of date palm made it challenging to prognosticate its sex until they flower almost 5 to 8 years after plantation. Researchers have developed many strategies to determine sex, including morphological study, biochemical studies, molecular-based studies as sequence characterized amplified regions (SCAR), randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, but still more endeavours are integral. To foretell sex at the seedling stage, specific PCR primers were employed in this study. These primers were designed on sex-linked regions that determine their gender. Date palm DNA was extracted through the CTAB method. The DNA was then amplified through PCR using sex-linked specific primers. PCR products have run on gel electrophoresis using 1.2% agarose to score the bands for sex determination. Four primers were employed in this study to determine sex. Two primers were SCAR markers, and one was a sex-linked tetra primer. Tetra-primer amplified the double band fragment of 430 and 320bp respectively in male plants, while a band of 430bp was amplified in female plants. The other primer named ALAMER1 was amplified by the single band fragment of 186bp in males with no band in females. The fourth primer, named as SCARdp, amplified the band fragment of 354bp fragment in males. These SCAR markers were established to be male-specific. Sex-linked markers provide a platform for robust, efficient, and accurate determination of sex in date palms.&nbsp;</p> 2022-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Potential Role of Microbiota in the Prevention and Therapeutic Management of Infectious Diseases 2022-04-08T16:55:15+00:00 Aqsa Shahid Khadeeja Nasir Sehar Aslam Muhammad Kamran Muhammad Hassan Sarfraz Hafiz Ghulam Murtaza Saleem Mohsin Khurshid <p>A huge diversity of microbial species continues to live with the human beings that are collectively known as microbiota. Several environmental factors can impact the microbial imbalance in the intestine which can play a starring role in health and disease conditions in humans. In this review, we have described the role of human microbiota in the individual’s susceptibility to infectious diseases such as gastrointestinal, respiratory, and female reproductive tract infections. Here, we have discussed how the indigenous microbiota interacts with the host and the invader microorganisms including bacteria, fungi, and viruses, and can modify the outcome of infections. The complex mechanisms of colonization resistance mediated by the microbiota as a direct and indirect way to fight against the infectious agents have been highlighted. Moreover, the approaches for the modulation of human microbiota for the prevention or therapeutic management of infectious diseases have been discussed especially the potential therapies directly targeting the microbiota such as probiotics, prebiotics, as well as fecal microbiota transplantation. Further studies need to focus on the complex interactions between the host and microbial species which could be helpful for a better understanding of the hidden potential of gut microbiota in the physiology of the host and could provide novel therapeutic targets and approaches.</p> 2022-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Starch Properties Ratio among Wheat Species Originated from different Regions of the World 2022-04-14T03:22:11+00:00 Bakht Nisa Mangan Muhammad Siddique Lashari Abdul Wahid Baloch Muhammad Nawaz Kandhro Zahra Masood Bhutta <p>Amylose content may various in different cereals even it varies specie to specie of a cereal especially in wheat, rice, barley and maize. A two-year study was organized to evaluate variability and availability of amylose and amylopectin among three wheat species (bread, emmer and durum), collected from various wheat cultivated countries, at the experimental site of Northwest Agriculture and Forestry University, Yangling, China during 2018 and 2019. According to the findings, bread, emmer and durum wheat carried out sufficient amount of amylose in both years with similar performance of amylopectin, which indicate the stability for both traits of starch in time period. According to our findings, out of 150 analyzed accessions of three different species of wheat during 2018 and 2019, 71 accessions (36 bread, 18 durum and 17 emmer) were with normal amylose content (20-30%), twenty accessions (9 bread, 4 durum and 7 emmer) were with ?30% amylose content in 2018. During the year 2019, 80 accessions (36 bread, 24 durum and 20 emmer) had normal range of amylose (20-30%), twenty accessions (10 bread, 4 durum and 6 emmer) were with ?30% amylose. Among all accession in both years no any waxy accession was observed which contain 1-2% of amylose.</p> 2022-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Blueprinting in Coherence to Diagnostic Momentum: On Account of Cancer Detection in Bahawalpur Community 2022-02-04T11:03:11+00:00 Yasmeen Manzoor Momina Dilshad Shahzad Gul Hassan Murtaza Hasan Muhammad Nasir Tuba Tariq Ayesha Zafar Shahbano Israr Fatima Tariq Ain ul Haq <p>In the current era, cancer is a critical health problem. Purpose of the study was symptomatic analysis of cancer patients and medical evaluation of hematological and biochemical parameters of patients from different geographical areas of district Bahawalpur. A crosssectional study was done to find out the diagnostic timeliness in cancer patients. Out of 150 cancer patients, 53% patients were males and 47% females with&nbsp; age from 15 years to 75 years. It has been shown that 76% of patients represent major symptoms of cancer while 24% of patients were showing minor symptoms. Furthermore, cancer patients were disturbed metabolical, hematological, and biochemical profiling. There were 83% of patients with anemia and 17% patients have normal hemoglobin count in males and 85 % of total female patients have low hemoglobin level while rest of 15% have normal hemoglobin count. Illiteracy is positively influencing the factors responsible for causing cancer with 53%, whereas 23% less than primary level education and only 1% of patients had completed their graduation. There were 31% of the patients lies in upper lower class of society, 28% lower class, Lower middle class 19%, middle class 14%, upper middle class 7% and only 1 % patients belong to high social status. This study will help to diagnosis the early cancer detection via biochemical and metabolic profiling.</p> 2022-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Green Nanosuspensions of Elettaria Cardamomum Seeds – Comparative Data Analysis for Enhanced Bioactivities 2022-03-15T10:44:41+00:00 Fareeha Nadeem Haroon ur Rashid Kayani Fatima Hussain <p>In order to conclude the efficiency of a plant for a specific ailment, its phytochemicals are evaluated using different scientific procedures. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the bioactive compounds and biological activities of <em>Elettaria cardamomum </em>seeds extract and nanosuspension. Nanosuspensions were formed using nano-precipitation method. Among bioactivities, antioxidant property was measured through total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) activity. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated through alpha-amylase inhibition and antiglycation assays. Cytotoxicity and antibiofilm activity was determined using the hemolytic assay and micro-titer dish assay respectively. For functional groups and structural characterization FTIR was performed. In TPC and TFC the results showed 358.89 and 126.27 mg gallic acid equivalent to 100gram dry weight, 137.78 and 65.145 mg catechin equivalent to 100gram dry weight for nanosuspensions and extract respectively. Whereas the DPPH inhibition was 31.3% and 32.1% for nanosuspensions and extract respectively. Nanosuspensions and extract showed growth resistance against <em>E. coli </em>i.e. 68.12% and 64.09% respectively. Cardamom seeds nanosuspension and extract showed 55.77% and 55.15% antidiabetic property through glycation inhibition. According to alpha amylase inhibition analysis 51.67% and 33.67% inhibiting property of nanosuspension and extract was observed. Hemolytic assay gave 18% and 32% hemolysis by using nanosuspension and extract. The nanosuspension that showed existence of sulfoxides, fluoro compounds, amines, phenols, alkaloids and alcohols as determined by FTIR. &nbsp;In order to do this seeds were obtained and ethanol extract was formulated. This study showed that nanosuspensions and extract prepared from <em>Elettaria cardamomum</em> exhibited enhanced bioactivities and further research is essential to determine remarkable characteristics and pharmacological potentials of these unique seeds.&nbsp;</p> 2022-05-11T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Genome –wide Allelic Variations and Population Structure Analysis of Cotton Genotypes using SSR Markers 2022-03-07T17:47:39+00:00 Abdul Rehman Muhammad Iqbal <p>The limited genetic base of modern cotton genotypes makes it difficult to improve cotton fibre yield and quality, emphasizing the necessity to study existing cotton germplasm resources. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity and population structure of different cotton genotypes at DNA level. A total of 105 cotton genotypes were analyzed using 208 polymorphic SSR markers which were distributed on both A and D genomes. The total number of alleles in all genomes are 1382 Out of which 665 and 717 alleles were recorded in A and D genomes, respectively. In A genome, the maximum PIC values; 0.89 was observed for markers M92, M82 and M76 with the 10-total number of alleles exhibiting 100% polymorphism. These markers (M92, M82 and M76) located at the chromosomes 12A, 11A and 10A respectively with the estimation of 0.84 gene diversity. The highest PIC value 0.89 of D genome was detected for M191, M128 and M117 markers on 24D, 16D and 15D chromosomes with the 10 total numbers of alleles having the 0.84 values of gene diversity with 100% polymorphism. The UPGMA cluster DARWIN tree and Model-based Bayesian analysis clustered the studied cotton germplasm into four subpopulations, and the highest molecular variation revealed among subpopulations. Phylogenetic tree constructed for the whole germplasm population identified four major groups including; Group 1, Group 2, Group 3 and Group 4 consisting of 12, 21, 39 and 69 genotypes, respectively. Genetic distances among clusters clearly showed the variations among one another. SSR markers appear to be useful and reliable assets for future genetic and genomic analyses of cotton, such as genetic map construction, comparative genomic analyses, genetic diversity, and molecular marker-assisted breeding to select promising cotton genotypes, according to the current experiment.</p> 2022-04-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Production of pectinases towards the extraction of natural pectin from orange peels using fungal sources 2021-10-10T06:27:07+00:00 Javeria Awan Shomaila Sikandar Imran Afzal <p>Pectin is a polysaccharide, which is present in middle lamella of cell wall of higher plants. Almost all fruits have a part of pectin in their cell walls. Pectinases are used in the degradation of the plant material and promptly extract juices from different fruits. For this purpose, identified fungi were screened qualitatively and quantitatively for the production of pectinase at 30 ºC for 92 hours of incubation time. In liquid state fermentation, identified strains of <em>Trichoderma asperellum, Aspergillus niger </em>and<em> Thermomyces </em>were treated in which <em>Trichoderma asperellum</em> produced maximum pectinase activities (9.2 U/ml) after 24 hours of incubation by using orange peels as a sole carbon source. Furthermore, pectinases produced from fungal strains were used to produce natural pectin from fruit waste like orange peels. During fermentation process, pectinase produced from fungal strains were inoculated to dried orange peels for 24 hours of incubation time at 30 ºC. The filtered extract was treated with 3 volumes of 80% ethanol for washing to extract pectin. <em>Trichoderma asperellum</em> gave maximum pectin yield [(11.7%)], <em>Aspergillus niger</em> and <em>Thermomyces</em> gave minimum pectin yield [(9.7%, 7.5%)] from orange peels respectively and the amount of pectin yield extracted from orange peels control was [(3.5%)]. Pectinases and pectin has found huge industrial applications in soft drinks, dairy products, pharmaceuticals and food industries, therefore, the present work has focused on the cost effective production of pectinase enzyme and extraction of natural pectin by using potential indigenous fungal strains.</p> 2022-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Intercropping of Maize with Soybean under Integrated Nutrient Management showcases the role of Organic Fertilizers in Silage Production and Quality 2022-02-12T14:56:39+00:00 Ali Hamed Muhammad Shahid Ibni Zamir Asif Tanveer Muhammad Yaseen <p>Increase in forage production is required to meet the increasing demand, therefore, this study was planned for enhancing forage quality and quantity alongside synthesis of quality silage from corn stover. Hence, maize hybrids were intercropped with soybeans and given reduced and full doses of chemical fertilizers integrated with biofertilizers (plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and/or organic fertilizers, compared to the recommended dose of fertilizers, and productivity of fresh fodder as well as the quality of silage were measured. It was observed that the PGPR-coated recommended dose of fertilizer (nitrogen 247 kg/ha, phosphorus 144 kg/ha, and potassium 92 kg/ha) showed maximum support to plants' growth (plant height, number of leaves, fresh forage production) and offered a better quality of silage through improvement in dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, hemicellulose and cellulose, and decrease in pH. Similarly, integration of reduced doses of chemical fertilizers (nitrogen 123 kg/ha, phosphorus 144 kg/ha, and potassium 92 kg/ha) with organic as well as biofertilizers also showed all morphological parameters of the forage, as well as lactic acid, dry matter, pH, hemicellulose, and neutral detergent fiber of the silage statistically at par with the recommended dose of chemical fertilizers.</p> 2022-02-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Cellulose Acetate Antimicrobial Membranes Enabled By Thialzolodines For Potential Applications In Packaging 2022-01-06T08:09:09+00:00 Saim Haroon Fakhr Un Nisa Sara Musaddiq <p style="text-align: justify; line-height: 150%;"><span lang="EN-US">Fabrication of new antimicrobial cellulose triacetate packaging membranes is the main focus of the present study. The integration of 2-aryl substituted benzothiazoles in a polymeric matrix of cellulose triacetate is used to fabricate&nbsp;these membranes. FT-IR and SEM are used to characterize these membranes. When assessed against <em>Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, </em>and <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em>, the modified packaging membranes demonstrated positive antimicrobial activities.</span></p> 2022-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Effect of Sub Lethal Doses of Nickel Chloride on CBC and Histology of Cirrhinus Mrigala 2022-05-09T18:15:05+00:00 Nida Saleem Saim Haroon Uzma Yasmeen Sikander Hayat Quratulane Gillani <p>This present study aims to investigate the histological and CBC parameters on <em>Cirrhinus marigala </em>after the exposure of Nickel Chloride. The first group of fish was taken as control group and placed in normal water without given any treatment. The second and third groups of fish were administered to two concentrations of sub-lethal doses of 96 hrs (LC<sub>50</sub>, 3.75ppm) of nickel chloride for 30 days. Results of this study showed that the number of white blood cells, platelets and haemoglobin level were significantly increased where simultaneously the number of red blood cells was significantly decreased due to exposure of nickel chloride. It was also observed that nickel chloride accumulated in organs (Kidneys &lt; Gills &lt; Liver &lt; Heart) of <em>Cirrhinus marigala</em>. Results of histopathology showed the heavy damage of vital organs in fish due to nickel chloride exposure. One-way ANOVA test was performed in SPSS package volume 16 showed that observed data was statistically signi?cant (P &lt; 0.05). This study concluded that nickel chloride effects the CBCs and histopathological parameters of fish <em>Cirrhinus marigala</em>.</p> <p><strong> </strong></p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Fish, Toxic effect, Heavy metal, blood parameters</p> <p> </p> 2021-06-30T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Medicinal Plants against Clinical Bacterial Species 2022-04-14T03:27:04+00:00 Rakhshinda Kaukab Rameez Nisar Ansar Ahmed Abbasi Khalid Hameed Maleeha Masood Raja Tahir Mahmood <p>The current study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial potential of herbal plants against gram negative including <em>Klebsiella pneumonia,</em> <em>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</em> and <em>Escherichia coli, </em>and gram positive bacteria including <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> and <em>Enterococcus </em>species. Aqueous extracts of these herbs were used to check the antimicrobial susceptibility. The antimicrobial activity of these herbal extracts was determined by using agar well diffusion technique. The aqueous extract of <em>Zanthoxylum alatum</em> exhibited maximum antibacterial activity against <em>Enterococcus fecalis</em> and <em>E. fecium</em> with the inhibitory zone in the range 35 mm and 30 mm at 100 uL respectively. While aqueous extract of <em>Gerwia asiatica</em> showed maximum antimicrobial activity against <em>E. fecalis</em> with the inhibitory zone 28 mm. Whereas, aqueous extract of <em>Juglans regia</em> showed maximum antibacterial activity against<em> P. aeruginosa</em> and <em>E. fecalis </em>with the inhibitory zones 28 mm and 20 mm respectively. Some of the microbes showed no inhibitory activity such as, <em>S. aureus</em> exhibited resistance against both <em>G. asiatica</em> and <em>J. regia </em>antimicrobial contents. The results confirmed the therapeutic potency of these herbs for use in folk medicine. The results also encourage the usage of plants exhibiting antimicrobial activity against most of the food-borne and food-spoilage microorganisms.</p> 2022-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology Qualitative and Quantitative Assesment of Phytochemicals in Selected Medicinal Plants native to Shujabad, Punjab, Pakistan 2022-04-29T07:35:54+00:00 Shazia Jabeen Nazia Amir Syeda Shaima Meryem <p>The present study aimed at screening of phytochemicals qualitatively and quantitatively in six selected medicinal plants native to Shujabad, Multan, Pakistan. Screening of various phytochemicals (phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, anthocayanins, phlobatannins, coumarins, triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides, sterols and alkaloids)was done by preparing plant leaf extracts in different solvents i.e., ethanol, methanol and water.</p> <p>Optical density of total phenolic and alkaloid compounds was measured via UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 640 nm and 470 nm respectively. &nbsp;Phenols and anthocayanins were found in all the six selected medicinal plants. Alkaloids were absent in <em>O. corniculata</em>. Flavonoids were absent in <em>R. communis</em>. Tannins were absent in <em>O. corniculata</em> and <em>E. prostrata</em>. Phlobatannins, coumarins and triterpenoids were absent in <em>O. corniculata</em> and <em>R. communis</em>. Terpenoids were absent in <em>R. communis</em>. Steroids were only present in <em>O. corniculata</em>, <em>C. album</em> and <em>C. citratus</em>. Sterols were absent in <em>R. communis</em> and saponins were only absent in <em>O. corniculata</em>. Glycosides were absent in <em>C. album</em>, <em>M. pipperita</em> and in <em>C. citratus</em>. Cardiac glycosides were only present in <em>C. citratus</em>. Phenolic content was found highest in <em>R. communis</em> while the highest alkaloid content in <em>E. prostrate </em>was found. It is evident from the study that <em>C. citratus</em>is of highest therapeutic efficacy possessing a majority of phytochemicals classes of compounds and <em>R. communis</em>is of lowest therapeutic potential due to the absence of the majority of phytoconstituents. Plants having these phytochemicals are considered important both medicinally and economically. There is a need to do further research on phytoconstituents of these plants and their role in mitigating the disease.</p> 2022-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology In-silico Analysis of 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin Genes in Arabidopsis thaliana with Possible Role in Carbon Dioxide Fixation through Carbonic Anhydrase regulation 2022-05-13T08:06:03+00:00 Yasir Ali Muhammad Yasin Abdul Aziz Abdul Wajid Khan Siddiq ur Rahman Noor Ul Haq <p>Targeting first neighbours and adding interactive protein to investigate the direct and indirect influence of neighbour genes is an important novel technique used in cancer studies. Weighing neighbour genes on the basis of topological analysis methods for essential proteins identification and multi-omics data is useful in predicting significant interactions in such investigations. A similar approach can also be adopted to help target specific genes in photosynthetic research, especially under stress conditions like low CO<sub>2</sub> and the transformation of plants from C3 to C4 photosynthesis. In this study, a computational approach has been used to identify two Genes i.e. 2-cys peroxiredoxin A, (2CPA; <em>AT3G11630</em>/BAS1) and 2-cysteine peroxiredoxin B (2CPB: <em>AT5G06290</em>) that may regulate Carbonic anhydrase during CO<sub>2</sub> fixation process during photosynthesis in <em>Arabidopsis thaliana</em>. We have retrieved almost one hundred genes in the Protein-Protein Interaction (PPI) network of Carbonic anhydrase and identified the hub proteins in the network using Cyto-Hubba and AraNet gene prioritization tools to show significant interactions of essential proteins with CA. In the top thirty-four (34) essential proteins, the GeneMania web tool predicted direct interactions among six proteins i.e. Photosystem I P subunit (CURT1B: AT2G46820), Photosystem I subunit l (PSAL: AT4G12800), Ferredoxin-NADP[+]-oxidoreductase 1 (FNR1:AT5G66190), ATPase (F0 complex subunit B/B' (PDE334:AT4G32260), Glucose-6-phosphate/phosphate translocator-like protein (TPT; AT5G46110) and Photosystem I subunit H2 (PSAH2; AT1G52230) that were participating in the same biological process and are found in the chloroplast. Upon addition of interactor protein, BAS1 and 2CPB were also found to have significant interactions with CA on the basis of multi-omics data. GO Biological process enrichment analysis confirmed that six genes are involved in photosynthesis except for BAS1 and 2CPB. These genes may interact with CA and possibly regulate it under high temperature and low CO<sub>2</sub> conditions.</p> 2022-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology The Dark Side of Skin Lightening: A review of a Public Health Issue Affecting Dermatology 2021-10-08T06:25:21+00:00 Syeda Hajira Shah Iram Anjum Tanveer Majeed <p>Women in Pakistan are obsessed with the concept of glowing whitish complexion to get good marriage proposals, jobs and desired status in society. Most of these fairness creams contain very high amount of mercury and hydroquinone. These act by inhibiting the tyrosinase enzyme responsible for melanin production. The use of skin fairness products that frequently contain toxic ingredients is associated with significant adverse health side effects, resulting in immense challenges for dermatologists. Despite current regulations, lightening agents continue to dominate the cosmetic industry. In this review, our international team of dermatologists tackles the topic of skin lightening as a global public health issue, one of great concern for both women’s health and racial implications. We aim to inspire a global discourse on how modern dermatologists can utilize scientific evidence and cultural competency to serve and protect patients of diverse skin types and backgrounds. In doing so, we hope to promote healthy skin and inclusive concepts of beauty in our patients and society.</p> <p> </p> 2022-06-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology