A Review and Analysis of Heavy Metals in Freshwater Reservoirs of Pakistan: their Bioaccumulation, Biological Magnification and Biotic Transmission
Keywords:Rawal Dam, Mangla Dam, Changhoz Dam, Zabi Daam, Heavy metals, Freshwater,, Sediments, Fish, Migratory Birds
Problems associated with pollution are becoming more severe as industrialization advances rapidly. Inorganic and organic wastes, both water-soluble and insoluble, are discharged into the aquatic environment, contributing to one of the most critical problems: water pollution. The discharge of waste in water channels allows heavy metal ions, which are toxic to all kinds of life, to enter the food chain. Lead, nickel, sodium, potassium, zinc, copper, iron lithium, cadmium, and chromium (VI) are among the most hazardous metal ions. Because they don't break down, metal ions build up in the environment and move up the food chain. Therefore, higher trophic level animals are more susceptible to their toxicityHeavy metals found in freshwater and sediments have been found to bioaccumulate in fish tissues. Rawal Dam, Mangla Dam, and Zabi Dam were identified as highly contaminated areas of freshwater that had detrimental effects on fish and human health. The Rawal Dam, which received a lot of industrial and sewage drainage from Punjab's metropolitan areas and industry, was significantly contaminated compared to other Pakistani Dams. Changhoz and Ghol Dams, with their massive water flows and relatively few accompanying industrial facilities, have the healthiest ecosystems of all Pakistan's dams. Changhoz Dam's freshwater fish are considered to be safe for human consumption. Heavy metals are accumulated by migratory birds at Rawal Dam from eating fish from freshwater reservoirs. Heavy metal pollution has been linked to a variety of social, ecological, and economic issues. The detrimental effects of heavy metals on aquatic organisms and human well-being can be reduced if wastewater is purified before being released into freshwater.