Pathophysiology of Zika Virus; From Infection to Cure
Keywords:Zika virus, Flaviviridae, Zika viral infection, RT-PCR, RNA NAT analysis, Acetaminophen
Zika virus is an icosahedral, enveloped, single-stranded RNA virus, a member of the family Flaviviridae, transmitted to humans by Aedes species mosquitoes. Unique features of Zika virus infection are sexual and transplacental transmission and associated neurological morbidities. The main objective of our review is to summarize the most of current information including epidemiology and pathophysiology of routes of transmission, prevalence, mode of infection, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment and vaccine strategies of Zika viral infection. This article is helpful to improve the treatment of Zika viral infection which will be beneficial for society. There are two different methods to diagnose the viral infection through RT-PCR and RNA NAT analysis. Vaccines have been developed against Zika virus, DNA vaccine effects actively than mRNA and live attenuated vaccines, due to its unique mode of infection. Treatment of Zika fever is supportive and primarily involves acetaminophen for fever, headache, or myalgia. ZIKV illness is generally mild in nature, requiring no specific treatment. As with treatment for dengue, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents should be avoided if thrombocytopenia is present. The most successful trials are given by the DNA and mRNA vaccine which act by targeting the genome of the Zika virus or by inhibiting its protein synthesis mechanism.