Qualitative and Quantitative Assesment of Phytochemicals in Selected Medicinal Plants native to Shujabad, Punjab, Pakistan
Keywords:Medicinal plants, Shujabad, Phytochemicals, Phenol, Alkaloids.
The present study aimed at screening of phytochemicals qualitatively and quantitatively in six selected medicinal plants native to Shujabad, Multan, Pakistan. Screening of various phytochemicals (phenols, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, steroids, terpenoids, anthocayanins, phlobatannins, coumarins, triterpenoids, cardiac glycosides, sterols and alkaloids)was done by preparing plant leaf extracts in different solvents i.e., ethanol, methanol and water.
Optical density of total phenolic and alkaloid compounds was measured via UV-Visible spectrophotometer at 640 nm and 470 nm respectively. Phenols and anthocayanins were found in all the six selected medicinal plants. Alkaloids were absent in O. corniculata. Flavonoids were absent in R. communis. Tannins were absent in O. corniculata and E. prostrata. Phlobatannins, coumarins and triterpenoids were absent in O. corniculata and R. communis. Terpenoids were absent in R. communis. Steroids were only present in O. corniculata, C. album and C. citratus. Sterols were absent in R. communis and saponins were only absent in O. corniculata. Glycosides were absent in C. album, M. pipperita and in C. citratus. Cardiac glycosides were only present in C. citratus. Phenolic content was found highest in R. communis while the highest alkaloid content in E. prostrate was found. It is evident from the study that C. citratusis of highest therapeutic efficacy possessing a majority of phytochemicals classes of compounds and R. communisis of lowest therapeutic potential due to the absence of the majority of phytoconstituents. Plants having these phytochemicals are considered important both medicinally and economically. There is a need to do further research on phytoconstituents of these plants and their role in mitigating the disease.