Green Nanosuspensions of Elettaria Cardamomum Seeds – Comparative Data Analysis for Enhanced Bioactivities


  • Fareeha Nadeem Department of Biochemistry, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad
  • Haroon ur Rashid Kayani Department of Computer Science and Information Technology, University of Lahore, Sargodha Campus, Sargodha, Pakistan



Elettaria cardamomum, diabetes mellitus, antioxidant activity, alpha amylase.


In order to conclude the efficiency of a plant for a specific ailment, its phytochemicals are evaluated using different scientific procedures. In this study, the aim was to evaluate the bioactive compounds and biological activities of Elettaria cardamomum seeds extract and nanosuspension. Nanosuspensions were formed using nano-precipitation method. Among bioactivities, antioxidant property was measured through total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) activity. Antidiabetic activity was evaluated through alpha-amylase inhibition and antiglycation assays. Cytotoxicity and antibiofilm activity was determined using the hemolytic assay and micro-titer dish assay respectively. For functional groups and structural characterization FTIR was performed. In TPC and TFC the results showed 358.89 and 126.27 mg gallic acid equivalent to 100gram dry weight, 137.78 and 65.145 mg catechin equivalent to 100gram dry weight for nanosuspensions and extract respectively. Whereas the DPPH inhibition was 31.3% and 32.1% for nanosuspensions and extract respectively. Nanosuspensions and extract showed growth resistance against E. coli i.e. 68.12% and 64.09% respectively. Cardamom seeds nanosuspension and extract showed 55.77% and 55.15% antidiabetic property through glycation inhibition. According to alpha amylase inhibition analysis 51.67% and 33.67% inhibiting property of nanosuspension and extract was observed. Hemolytic assay gave 18% and 32% hemolysis by using nanosuspension and extract. The nanosuspension that showed existence of sulfoxides, fluoro compounds, amines, phenols, alkaloids and alcohols as determined by FTIR.  In order to do this seeds were obtained and ethanol extract was formulated. This study showed that nanosuspensions and extract prepared from Elettaria cardamomum exhibited enhanced bioactivities and further research is essential to determine remarkable characteristics and pharmacological potentials of these unique seeds. 



How to Cite

Nadeem, F., Rashid Kayani, H. ur, & Hussain, F. (2022). Green Nanosuspensions of Elettaria Cardamomum Seeds – Comparative Data Analysis for Enhanced Bioactivities. Pakistan Journal of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, 3(1), 80-90.